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 Tafsir - Surah Al' Imran

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PostSubject: Tafsir - Surah Al' Imran   Mon Aug 10, 2009 5:17 am

www.tafsir.com

The Tafsir of Surah Al `Imran

Surah Al `Imran was revealed in Al-Madinah, as evident by the fact that the first eighty-three Ayat in it relate to the delegation from Najran that arrived in Al-Madinah on the ninth year of Hijrah (632 CE). We will elaborate on this subject when we explain the Ayah about the Mubahalah [3:61] in this Surah, Allah willing. We should also state that we mentioned the virtues of Surah Al `Imran along with the virtues of Surat Al-Baqarah in the beginning of the Tafsir of Surat Al-Baqarah.
[بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ ]

[الم - ذَلِكَ الْكِتَابُ لاَ رَيْبَ فِيهِ هُدًى لِّلْمُتَّقِينَ - الَّذِينَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِالْغَيْبِ وَيُقِيمُونَ الصَّلوةَ وَمِمَّا رَزَقْنَـهُمْ يُنفِقُونَ - وَالَّذِينَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِمَآ أُنزِلَ إِلَيْكَ وَمَآ أُنزِلَ مِن قَبْلِكَ وَبِالأْخِرَةِ هُمْ يُوقِنُونَ ]

(In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful) (1. Alif-Lam-Mim.) (2. Allah! None has the right to be worshipped but He, the Ever Living, the One Who sustains and protects all that exists.) (3. It is He Who has sent down the Book to you with truth, confirming what came before it. And He sent down the Tawrah and the Injil,) (4. Aforetime, as a guidance to mankind. And He sent down the criterion. Truly, those who disbelieve in the Ayat of Allah, for them there is a severe torment; and Allah is All-Mighty, All-Able of Retribution.)
We mentioned the Hadith in the Tafsir of Ayat Al-Kursi [2:255] that mentions that Allah's Greatest Name is contained in these two Ayat,
[اللَّهُ لاَ إِلَـهَ إِلاَّ هُوَ الْحَىُّ الْقَيُّومُ ]

(Allah! None has the right to be worshipped but He, the Ever Living, the One Who sustains and protects all that exists) and,
[الم - ذَلِكَ الْكِتَابُ لاَ رَيْبَ فِيهِ هُدًى لِّلْمُتَّقِينَ ]

(Alif-Lam-Mim. Allah! None has the right to be worshipped but He, the Ever Living, the One Who sustains and protects all that exists.)

We also explained the Tafsir of,

[الم ]

(Alif-Lam-Mim) in the beginning of Surat Al-Baqarah, and the meaning of,
[اللَّهُ لاَ إِلَـهَ إِلاَّ هُوَ الْحَىُّ الْقَيُّومُ ]
(Allah! La ilaha illa Huwa, Al-Hayyul-Qayyum) in the Tafsir of Ayat Al-Kursi. Allah's statement,
[نَزَّلَ عَلَيْكَ الْكِتَـبَ بِالْحَقِّ]
(It is He Who has sent down the Book to you with truth, ) means, revealed the Qur'an to you, O Muhammad, in truth, meaning there is no doubt or suspicion that it is revealed from Allah. Verily, Allah revealed the Qur'an with His knowledge, and the angels testify to this fact, Allah is sufficient as a Witness. Allah's statement,
[مُصَدِّقاً لِّمَا بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ]
(Confirming what came before it) means, from the previous divinely revealed Books, sent to the servants and Prophets of Allah. These Books testify to the truth of the Qur'an, and the Qur'an also testifies to the truth these Books contained, including the news and glad tidings of Muhammad's prophethood and the revelation of the Glorious Qur'an.
Allah said,
[وَأَنزَلَ التَّوْرَاةَ]
(And He sent down the Tawrah) to Musa (Musa) son of `Imran,
[وَالإِنجِيلَ]
(And the Injil), to `Isa, son of Mary,
[مِن قَبْلُ]
(Aforetime) meaning, before the Qur'an was revealed,
[هُدًى لِّلنَّاسِ(As a guidance to mankind) in their time.
[وَأَنزَلَ الْفُرْقَانَ]
(And He sent down the criterion) which is the distinction between misguidance, falsehood and deviation on one hand, and guidance, truth and piety on the other hand. This is because of the indications, signs, plain evidences and clear proofs that it contains, and because of its explanations, clarifications, etc.

Allah's statement,


[إِنَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ بِأيَـتِ اللَّهِ]
(Truly, those who disbelieve in the Ayat of Allah) means they denied, refused and unjustly rejected them,
[لَهُمْ عَذَابٌ شَدِيدٌ]


(For them there is a severe torment) on the Day of Resurrection,
[وَاللَّهُ عَزِيزٌ]
(And Allah is All-Mighty) meaning, His grandeur is invincible and His sovereignty is infinite,


[ذُو انتِقَامٍ]


(All-Able of Retribution.) from those who reject His Ayat and defy His honorable Messengers and great Prophets.


[إِنَّ اللَّهَ لاَ يَخْفَى عَلَيْهِ شَىْءٌ فِي الاٌّرْضِ وَلاَ فِى السَّمَآءِ - هُوَ الَّذِي يُصَوِّرُكُمْ فِي الاٌّرْحَامِ كَيْفَ يَشَآءُ لاَ إِلَـهَ إِلاَّ هُوَ الْعَزِيزُ الْحَكِيمُ ]


(5. Truly, nothing is hidden from Allah, in the earth or in the heaven.) (6. He it is Who shapes you in the wombs as He wills. None has the right to be worshipped but He, the Almighty, the All-Wise.)


Allah states that He has perfect knowledge in the heavens and earth and that nothing in them is hidden from His watch.


[هُوَ الَّذِي يُصَوِّرُكُمْ فِي الاٌّرْحَامِ كَيْفَ يَشَآءُ]


(He it is Who shapes you in the wombs as He wills.) meaning, He creates you in the wombs as He wills, whether male or female, handsome or otherwise, happy or miserable.


[لاَ إِلَـهَ إِلاَّ هُوَ الْعَزِيزُ الْحَكِيمُ]


(La ilaha illa Huwa (none has the right to be worshipped but He), the Almighty, the All-Wise.) meaning, He is the Creator and thus is the only deity worthy of worship, without partners, and His is the perfect might, wisdom and decision. This Ayah refers to the fact that `Isa, son of Mary, is a created servant, just as Allah created the rest of mankind. Allah created `Isa in the womb (of his mother) and shaped him as He willed. Therefore, how could `Isa be divine, as the Christians, may Allah's curses descend on them, claim `Isa was created in the womb and his creation changed from stage to stage, just as Allah said,


[يَخْلُقُكُمْ فِى بُطُونِ أُمَّهَـتِكُـمْ خَلْقاً مِّن بَعْدِ خَلْقٍ فِى ظُلُمَـتٍ ثَلَـثٍ]


(He creates you in the wombs of your mothers, creation after creation in three veils of darkness.) [39:6].


[هُوَ الَّذِى أَنزَلَ عَلَيْكَ الْكِتَـبَ مِنْهُ آيَـتٌ مُّحْكَمَـتٌ هُنَّ أُمُّ الْكِتَـبِ وَأُخَرُ مُتَشَـبِهَـتٌ فَأَمَّا الَّذِينَ فى قُلُوبِهِمْ زَيْغٌ فَيَتَّبِعُونَ مَا تَشَـبَهَ مِنْهُ ابْتِغَآءَ الْفِتْنَةِ وَابْتِغَآءَ تَأْوِيلِهِ وَمَا يَعْلَمُ تَأْوِيلَهُ إِلاَّ اللَّهُ وَالرَسِخُونَ فِي الْعِلْمِ يَقُولُونَ ءَامَنَّا بِهِ كُلٌّ مِّنْ عِندِ رَبِّنَا وَمَا يَذَّكَّرُ إِلاَّ أُوْلُواْ الأَلْبَـبِ - رَبَّنَا لاَ تُزِغْ قُلُوبَنَا بَعْدَ إِذْ هَدَيْتَنَا وَهَبْ لَنَا مِن لَّدُنكَ رَحْمَةً إِنَّكَ أَنتَ الْوَهَّابُ - رَبَّنَآ إِنَّكَ جَامِعُ النَّاسِ لِيَوْمٍ لاَّ رَيْبَ فِيهِ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لاَ يُخْلِفُ الْمِيعَادَ ]


(7. It is He Who has sent down to you the Book. In it are verses that are entirely clear, they are the foundations of the Book; and others not entirely clear. So as for those in whose hearts there is a deviation (from the truth) they follow (only) that which is not entirely clear thereof, seeking Al-Fitnah, and seeking its Ta'wil, but none knows its Ta'wil except Allah. And those who are firmly grounded in knowledge say: "We believe in it; all of it is from our Lord.'' And none receive admonition except men of understanding.) (8. (They say): "Our Lord! Let not our hearts deviate (from the truth) after You have guided us, and grant us mercy from You. Truly, You are the Bestower.'') (9. "Our Lord! Verily, it is You Who will gather mankind together on the Day about which there is no doubt. Verily, Allah never breaks His Promise.'')
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PostSubject: Re: Tafsir - Surah Al' Imran   Thu Aug 20, 2009 5:59 am

On the Day of Resurrection, No Wealth or Offspring Shall Avail

Allah states that the disbelievers shall be fuel for the Fire,

[يَوْمَ لاَ يَنفَعُ الظَّـلِمِينَ مَعْذِرَتُهُمْ وَلَهُمُ الْلَّعْنَةُ وَلَهُمْ سُوءُ الدَّارِ ]

(The Day when their excuses will be of no profit to wrongdoers. Theirs will be the curse, and theirs will be the evil abode (i.e. painful torment in Hell-fire).) [40:52].
Further, what they were granted in this life of wealth and offspring shall not avail them with Allah, or save them from His punishment and severe torment. Similarly, Allah said,
[فَلاَ تُعْجِبْكَ أَمْوَلُهُمْ وَلاَ أَوْلَـدُهُمْ إِنَّمَا يُرِيدُ اللَّهُ لِيُعَذِّبَهُمْ بِهَا فِي الْحَيَوةِ الدُّنْيَا وَتَزْهَقَ أَنفُسُهُمْ وَهُمْ كَـفِرُونَ ]
(So let not their wealth nor their children amaze you; in reality Allah's plan is to punish them with these things in the life of this world, and that their souls shall depart (die) while they are disbelievers.) [9:55], and,
[لاَ يَغُرَّنَّكَ تَقَلُّبُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ فِى الْبِلَـدِ - مَتَـعٌ قَلِيلٌ ثُمَّ مَأْوَاهُمْ جَهَنَّمُ وَبِئْسَ الْمِهَادُ ]
(Let not the free disposal (and affluence) of the disbelievers throughout the land deceive you. A brief enjoyment; then, their ultimate abode is Hell; and worst indeed is that place for rest.) [3:196, 197].
Allah said in this Ayah [3:10],
[إِنَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ]
(Verily, those who disbelieve) meaning, disbelieved in Allah's Ayat, denied His Messengers, defied His Books and did not benefit from His revelation to His Prophets,
[لَن تُغْنِىَ عَنْهُمْ أَمْوَلُهُمْ وَلاَ أَوْلـدُهُم مِّنَ اللَّهِ شَيْئًا وَأُولَـئِكَ هُمْ وَقُودُ النَّارِ]
(Neither their properties nor their offspring will avail them whatsoever against Allah; and it is they who will be fuel of the Fire.) meaning, they will be the wood with which the Fire is kindled and fed. Similarly, Allah said,
[إِنَّكُمْ وَمَا تَعْبُدُونَ مِن دُونِ اللَّهِ حَصَبُ جَهَنَّمَ]
(Certainly you (disbelievers) and that which you are worshipping now besides Allah, are (but) fuel for Hell!) [21:98].
Allah said next,
[كَدَأْبِ ءَالِ فِرْعَوْنَ]
(Like the Da'b of the people of Fira`wn.) Ad-Dahhak said that Ibn `Abbas said that the Ayah means, "Like the behavior of the people of Fir`awn.'' This is the same Tafsir of `Ikrimah, Mujahid, Abu Malik, Ad-Dahhak, and others. Other scholars said that the Ayah means, "Like the practice, conduct, likeness of the people of Fir`awn.'' These meanings are all plausible, for the Da'b means practice, behavior, tradition and habit. The Ayah indicates that the disbelievers will not benefit from their wealth or offspring. Rather, they will perish and be punished. This is the same end the people of Fir`awn and the previous nations met, those who rejected the Messengers, the Ayat, and proofs of Allah that they were sent with.
[وَاللَّهُ شَدِيدُ الْعِقَابِ]
(And Allah is severe in punishment.) meaning, His punishment is severe and His torment is painful. None can escape Allah's grasp, nor does anything escape His knowledge. Allah does what He wills and prevails over all things, it is He to Whom everything is humbled and there is no deity worthy of worship, nor any Lord except Him.

[قُلْ لِّلَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ سَتُغْلَبُونَ وَتُحْشَرُونَ إِلَى جَهَنَّمَ وَبِئْسَ الْمِهَادُ - قَدْ كَانَ لَكُمْ ءَايَةٌ فِي فِئَتَيْنِ الْتَقَتَا فِئَةٌ تُقَـتِلُ فِى سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ وَأُخْرَى كَافِرَةٌ يَرَوْنَهُمْ مِّثْلَيْهِمْ رَأْىَ الْعَيْنِ وَاللَّهُ يُؤَيِّدُ بِنَصْرِهِ مَن يَشَآءُ إِنَّ فِى ذَلِكَ لَعِبْرَةً لاوْلِى الاٌّبْصَـرِ ]
(12. Say to those who disbelieve: "You will be defeated and gathered together to Hell, and worst indeed is that place of rest.'') (13. There has already been a sign for you in the two armies that met. One was fighting in the cause of Allah, and as for the other, in disbelief. They saw them with their own eyes twice their number. And Allah supports with His aid whom He wills. Verily, in this is a lesson for those who understand.)
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PostSubject: Re: Tafsir - Surah Al' Imran   Thu Aug 27, 2009 5:12 am

The True Value of This Earthly Life

Allah mentions the delights that He put in this life for people, such as women and children, and He started with women, because the test with them is more tempting. For instance, the Sahih recorded that the Messenger said,
«مَا تَرَكْتُ بَعْدِي فِتْنَةً أَضَرَّ عَلَى الرِّجَالِ مِنَ النِّسَاء»
(I did not leave behind me a test more tempting to men than women.)
When one enjoys women for the purpose of having children and preserving his chastity, then he is encouraged to do so. There are many Hadiths that encourage getting married, such as,
(Verily, the best members of this Ummah are those who have the most wives) He also said,

«الدُّنْيَا مَتَاعٌ، وَخَيْرُ مَتَاعِهَا الْمَرْأَةُ الصَّالِحَة»

(This life is a delight, and the best of its delight is a righteous wife)

The Prophet said in another Hadith,

«حُبِّبَ إِلَيَّ النِّسَاءُ وَالطِّيبُ، وَجُعِلَتْ قُرَّةُ عَيْنِي فِي الصَّلَاة»

(I was made to like women and perfume, and the comfort of my eye is the prayer.)

`A'ishah, may Allah be pleased with her, said, "Nothing was more beloved to the Messenger of Allah than women, except horses,'' and in another narration, "...than horses except women.''
The desire to have children is sometimes for the purpose of pride and boasting, and as such, is a temptation. When the purpose for having children is to reproduce and increase the Ummah of Muhammad with those who worship Allah alone without partners, then it is encouraged and praised. A Hadith states,

«تَزَوَّجُوا الْوَدُودَ الْوَلُودَ، فَإِنِّي مُكَاثِرٌ بِكُمُ الْأُمَمَ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَة»

(Marry the Wadud (kind) and Walud (fertile) woman, for I will compare your numbers to the rest of the nations on the Day of Resurrection.)

The desire of wealth sometimes results out of arrogance, and the desire to dominate the weak and control the poor, and this conduct is prohibited. Sometimes, the want for more money is for the purpose of spending it on acts of worship, being kind to the family, the relatives, and spending on various acts of righteousness and obedience; this behavior is praised and encouraged in the religion.

Scholars of Tafsir have conflicting opinions about the amount of the Qintar, all of which indicate that the Qintar is a large amount of money, as Ad-Dahhak and other scholars said. Abu Hurayrah said "The Qintar is twelve thousand Uwqiyah, each Uwqiyah is better than what is between the heavens and earth.'' [This was recorded by Ibn Jarir ].

The desire to have horses can be one of three types. Sometimes, owners of horses collect them to be used in the cause of Allah, and when warranted, they use their horses in battle. This type of owner shall be rewarded for this good action. Another type collects horses to boast, and out of enmity to the people of Islam, and this type earns a burden for his behavior. Another type collects horses to fulfill their needs and to collect their offspring, and they do not forget Allah's right due on their horses. This is why in this case, these horses provide a shield of sufficiency for their owner, as evident by a Hadith that we will mention, Allah willing, when we explain Allah's statement,

[وَأَعِدُّواْ لَهُمْ مَّا اسْتَطَعْتُم مّن قُوَّةٍ وَمِن رّبَاطِ الْخَيْلِ]

(And make ready against them all you can of power, including steeds of war.) [8:60].

As for the Musawwamah horses, Ibn `Abbas said that they are the branded, beautiful horses. This is the same explanation of Mujahid, `Ikrimah, Sa`id bin Jubayr, `Abdur-Rahman bin `Abdullah bin Abza, As-Suddi, Ar-Rabi` bin Anas and Abu Sinan and others. Makhul said the Musawwamah refers to the horse with a white spotted faced, and the horse with white feet. Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Dharr said that the Messenger of Allah said,

«لَيْسَ مِنْ فَرَسٍ عَرَبِيَ إِلَّا يُؤْذَنُ لَهُ مَعَ كُلِّ فَجْرٍ يَدْعُو بِدَعْوَتَيْنِ يَقُولُ: اللَّهُمَّ إِنَّكَ خَوَّلْتَنِي مِنْ بَنِي آدَمَ، فَاجْعَلْنِي مِنْ أَحَبِّ مَالِهِ وَأَهْلِهِ إِلَيْهِ أَوْ أَحَبَّ أَهْلِهِ وَمَالِهِ إِلَيْه»

(Every Arabian horse is allowed to have two supplications every dawn, and the horse supplicates, `O Allah! You made me subservient to the son of Adam. Therefore, make me among the dearest of his wealth and household to him, or, ...make me the dearest of his household and wealth to him.)

Allah's statement,

[وَالاٌّنْعَـمُ]

(Cattle) means, camels, cows and sheep.

[وَالْحَرْثِ]

(And fertile land) meaning, the land that is used to farm and grow plants.

Allah then said,

[ذَلِكَ مَتَـعُ الْحَيَوةِ الدُّنْيَا]

(This is the pleasure of the present world's life) Ymeaning, these are the delights of this life and its short lived joys,

[وَاللَّهُ عِندَهُ حُسْنُ الْمَأَبِ]

(But Allah has the excellent return with Him) meaning, the best destination and reward.
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